For further information on Alström Syndrome and rare diseases please see:
Orphanet is an online database of rare diseases and related services provided through Europe. It contains information on over 5,000 conditions and lists specialised clinics, diagnostic tests, patient and organizations, research projects and trials.
The EURO-WABB Project is a collaboration of doctors, scientists and patient support groups from all over Europe. This website provides information on Wolfram Syndrome and other rare genetic forms of diabetes.
Gene Review is an international publication which is seen as a resource for clinicians and medical professionals as it provides clinical data and information for inherited conditions in a standardised journal-style format, covering diagnosis and management. Each chapter in the Gene Review is written by one or more experts on the specific condition or disease and goes through a rigorous editing process before being published online.
The first Gene Review for Alstrom Syndrome was published in 2003, but has been updated in 2019.
The Gene Reviews can be found on the U.S National Library of Medicine:
Paisey RB, Steeds R, Barrett T, et al. Alström Syndrome.
2003 Feb 7 [Updated 2019 Jun 13]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon
RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of
Washington, Seattle; 1993-2019.
Bookshelf URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/
http://www.genereviews.org/ © 1993-2019 University of Washington
Paisey RB, Steeds R, Barrett T, et al. Alström Syndrome. 2003 Feb 7 [Updated 2019 Jun 13]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2019.
You can read the Alstrom Syndrome Gene Review which is available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1267/
Overview and case review of patients with Alstrom
- Alström C, Hallgren B, Nilsson L, Asander H. – Retinal degeneration combined with obesity, diabetes mellitus and neurogenous deafness: a specific syndrome (not hitherto described) distinct from the Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome. A clinical endocrinological and genetic examination based on a large pedigree. Acta Psychiat Neurol Scand. 1959;34 (suppl 129):1-35.
- Marshall JD, Bronson RT, Collin GB, Nordstrom AD, Maffei P, Paisey RB, Carey C, Macdermott S, Russell-Eggitt I, Shea SE, Davis J, Beck S, Shatirishvili G, Mihai CM, Hoeltzenbein M, Pozzan GB, Hopkinson I, Sicolo N, Naggert JK, Nishina PM. – New Alstrom syndrome phenotypes based on the evaluation of 182 cases. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:675-683.
- Russell-Eggitt IM, Clayton PT, Coffey R, Kriss A, Taylor DS, Taylor JF Alström Syndrome. – Report of 22 cases and literature review. Ophthalmology. 1998 Jul;105(7):1274-80
- Joy T, Cao H, Black G, Malik R, Charlton-Menys V, Hegele RA, Durrington PN. – Alström Syndrome (OMIM 203800): a case report and literature review : Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Dec 21;2(1):49 [Epub ahead of print]
- Maffei P, Boschetti M, Marshall JD, Paisey RB, Beck S, Resmini E, Collin GB, Naggert JK, Milan G, Vettor R, Minuto F, Sicolo N, Barreca A. Characterization of the IGF system in 15 patients with Alström Syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Feb;66(2):269-75.
- Alstrom Clinical Characteristics and Management 2003 Feb 7 [updated 2019 Jun 13].
- Five novel ALMS1 gene mutations in six patients with Alström syndrome.
Research papers which concentrate on endocrinology
- Collin GB, Marshall JD, Ikeda A, So WV, Russell-Eggitt I, Maffei P, Beck S, Boerkoel CF, Sicolo N, Matin M. Nishina PM, Naggert JK. Mutations in ALMS1 cause obesity, type 2 diabetes and neurosensory degeneration in Alstrom syndrome. Nat Genet. 2002;31:74-78.
- Lee NC, Marshall JD, Collin GB, Naggert JK, Chien YH, Tsai WY, Hwu WL. Caloric restriction in Alström syndrome prevents hyperinsulinemia. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Feb 15;149A(4):666-8.
- Paisey RB, Hodge D, Williams K. Body fat distribution, serum glucose, lipid and insulin response to meals in Alström Syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2008 Jun;21(3):268-74.
- Paisey RB, Paisey RM, Thomson MP, Bower L, Maffei P, Shield JP, Barnett S, Marshall JD. Protection from clinical peripheral sensory neuropathy in Alström Syndrome in contrast to early-onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Mar;32(3):462-4. Epub 2008 Dec 17.
- Paisey RB. New insights and therapies for the metabolic consequences of Alström Syndrome. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009 Aug;20(4):315-20. Review.
- Paisey RB, Carey CM, Bower L, Marshall J, Taylor P, Maffei P, Mansell P. – Hypertriglyceridaemia in Alström Syndrome: causes and associations in 37 cases. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Feb;60(2):228-31.
- Paisey R B, Williams K, Warren C – High vs low carbohydrate meal effects on serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels in five patients with Alström Syndrome. Diabetic Medicine April 2003 20(supplement 2)104-105.
- Hodge D A,Williams K, Marshall J, Barratt T, Paisey R – Role of insulin treatment for diabetes in Alström Syndrome. Diabetic Medicine, March 2006,23 (supplement 2) 88.
- Hearn T, Spalluto C, Phillips VJ, Renforth GL, Copin N, Hanley NA, Wilson DI – Subcellular localization of ALMS1 supports involvement of centrosome and basal body dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes 1: Diabetes. 2005 May54 (5):
- Minton JA, Owen KR, Ricketts CJ, Crabtree N, Shaikh G, Ehtisham S, Porter JR, Carey C, Hodge D, Paisey R, Walker M, Barrett TG. Syndromic obesity and diabetes: changes in body composition with age and mutation analysis of ALMS1 in 12 United Kingdom kindreds with Alström Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;91(8):3110-6. Epub 2006 May 23.
- Hearn T, Renforth GL, Spalluto C, Hanley NA, Piper K, Brickwood S, White C, Connolly V, Taylor JF, Russell-Eggitt I, Bonneau D, Walker M, Wilson DI. – Mutation of ALMS1, a large gene with a tandem repeat encoding 47 amino acids, causes Alstrom syndrome. Nat Genet. 2002;31:79-83.
- Genomic knockout of alms1 in zebrafish recapitulates Alström syndrome and provides insight into metabolic phenotypes.
Research related to cardiology
- Bond J, Flintoff K, Higgins J, Scott S, Bennet C, Parsons J, Mannon J, Jafri H, Rashid Y, Barrow M, Trembath R, Woodruff G, Rossa E, Lynch S, Sheilds J, Newbury-Ecob R, Falconer A, Holland P, Cockburn D, Karbani G, Malik S, Ahmed M, Roberts E, Taylor G, Woods CG. – The importance of seeking ALMS1 mutations in infants with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Med Genet. 2005 Feb;42(2):e10
- Smith JC, McDonnell B, Retallick C, McEniery C, Carey C, Davies JS, Barrett T, Cockcroft JR, Paisey R. Is arterial stiffening in Alström Syndrome linked to the development of cardiomyopathy? Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Feb;37(2):99-105.
- Loudon MA, Bellenger NG, Carey CM, Paisey RB. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Alström Syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2009 Jun 10;4:14.
- Alström Syndrome Presenting as Isolated Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
- Aldahmesh MA, Abu-Safieh L, Khan AO, Al-Hassnan ZN, Shaheen R, Rajab M, Monies D, Meyer BF, Alkuraya FS. Allelic heterogeneity in inbred populations: the Saudi experience with Alström Syndrome as an illustrative example. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Feb 15;149A(4):662-5.
- Phenotypic and mutational spectrum of 21 Chinese patients with Alström syndrome.
- Whole exome sequencing identified two homozygous ALMS1 mutations in an Iranian family with Alström syndrome.
- Late diagnosis of Alstrom syndrome in a Yemenite-Jewish child.
- Rare Compound Heterozygous Frameshift Mutations in ALMS1 Gene Identified Through Exome Sequencing in a Taiwanese Patient With Alström Syndrome.
- Whole exome sequencing identifies rare biallelic ALMS1 missense and stop gain mutations in familial Alström syndrome patients.
- Hill RG, Dwyer K, Tirino J,
Cochlear implantation and mastoid obliteration in a patient with Alström Syndrome.
Abstract: International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
- Flavia G, Samanta G, Patrizia T, Ezio C, Francesca D, Pietro M, Roberto B.
Abstract: NCBI Pubmed from Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology
Cochlear Implants in Alström Syndrome.